The "substr" expression extracts portions of a string. The arguments are
To obtain the last n characters of a string use
"Ftime" expressions are used for date and time formatting. The generic form is
where fmt is a formatting string and when is the time to be formatted. The arguments can be in either order and may use the optional "fmt=" and "when=" labels.
The "tz" (time zone) argument allows the setting of a different time zone, only available on installations running PHP 5.1 or newer. See the list of supported time zones, any value not found there will be silently ignored.
The "locale" (language locale) argument allows the time format to be printed in a different language for names of weekdays and months, as long as that language locale is available on the server. You can set different locales to try, separated with commas or spaces, for example "fr_FR.utf8,fr_FR,fr". If none of the listed locales is available, the argument is silently ignored.
With international locales, if you see weird characters, try adding or removing the ".utf8" or ".UTF-8" part of the locale, e.g. try both "fr_FR.utf8" and "fr_FR" to see which one works for you. Wikis with UTF-8 enabled are more likely to need the ".utf8" part.
The fmt parameter is whatever is given by "fmt=", the first parameter containing a '%', or else the site's default. The formatting codes are described at http://php.net/strftime. In addition to those, '%F' produces ISO-8601 dates, and '%s' produces Unix timestamps. Some common formatting strings:
%F # ISO-8601 dates "2020-11-29" %s # Unix timestamp "1606668104" %H:%M:%S # time as hh:mm:ss "16:41:44" %m/%d/%Y # date as mm/dd/yyyy "11/29/2020" "%A, %B %d, %Y" # in words "Sunday, November 29, 2020"
The when parameter understands many different date formats. The when parameter is whatever is given by "when=", or whatever parameter remains after determining the format parameter. Some examples:
2007-04-11 # ISO-8601 dates 20070411 # dates without hyphens, slashes, or dots 2007-03 # months @1176304315 # Unix timestamps (seconds since 1-Jan-1970 00:00 UTC) now # the current time today # today @ 00:00:00 yesterday # yesterday @ 00:00:00 "next Monday" # relative dates "last Thursday" # relative dates "-3 days" # three days ago "+2 weeks" # two weeks from now
Note: If you want to convert a Unix timestamp you must prefix with the @. Thus,
The "strlen" expression returns the length of a string. The first argument is the string to be measured.
The "rand" expression returns a random integer. The first argument is the minimum number to be returned and the second argument is the maximum number to be returned. If called without the optional min, max arguments rand() returns a pseudo-random integer between 0 and RAND_MAX. If you want a random number between 5 and 15 (inclusive), for example, use (rand 5 15).
The advanced "mod" expression returns the modulo (remainder) of the division of two numbers. It may be used in advanced PageList templates together with
toupper / tolower
The "toupper" and "tolower" expressions convert a string into uppercase or lowercase. The first argument is the string to be processed.
ucfirst / ucwords
The "ucfirst" expression converts to uppercase the first character of the string, and "ucwords", the first character of each word. The first argument is the string to be processed.
The "pagename" expression builds a pagename from a string. The first argument is the string to be processed.
The "asspaced" expression formats wikiwords. The first argument is the string to be processed.
Markup expressions can be nested. Omit the curly braces for the inner expressions: