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Test Knowledge of Salesmen
Ask Them to Answer These Twenty Questions and Give Them Five Points for Each Correct Answer

The twenty questions we publish each month are for the purpose of providing luggage and leather goods retailers with a basis of information they can use in the sales training program of their stores. These questions and answers cover all phases of luggage and leather goods, manufacture and selling and if they are used by retailers every month, they will provide salesclerks with an intimate knowledge of the merchandise they sell. (April 1942 "Luggage & Leather Goods," page 20 & 26)

Name the two ways sewed frame bags have their leather attached to the frame.
Sewed frame bags have the leather sewed to the frame either by hand or machine. Hand sewing is frequently called saddle stitching. Hand-sewed bags are better looking and last longer.
Why is leather split ?
After cattlehide leather has been tanned, it has to be split parallel to the grain to be made thinner, partly to insure uniform thickness, partly to attain the pliability desired for certain types of construction. The outer surface or the hair side of the original hide is called the grain regardless of its thickness, and the inner surface or flesh side is called the split.
How is calf different from cattlehide?' \\ Calf has a much finer grain and closer texture that is likely to show ,tiny wrinkles. It is a sturdy leather lending itself well to embossing in the grains of other leathers and has extensive uses in fancy colors carrying such distinctive grains.
Why must leather be revitalized from time to time?
Genuine leather, being an organic substance, depends for its preservation and appearance upon the periodical restoration of certain necessary oils which normal exposure to air and the elements has removed.
Name a few of the raw materials needed for tanning.
Lime is needed for the clehairing process, "syntans" or synthetic tanning materials, lactic and sulphuric acids, dyes, cod and other types of fish oils, chrome, wool grease and petroleum are but a few of the raw materials that go into the manufacture of leather. From which type tanning process is most luggage leather produced? Vegetable tanning, the most ancient method, remains very important today, because it is essential for the production of luggage leather among others. Most heavy leathers are made from cattle hides, and consequently vegetable tanning may be considered as mainly applying to the tanning of hides, as distinct from skins.
Is it a lengthy process?
Vegetable tanning still requires a period running into months, despite the many improvements made in modern times.
Why is this length of time required?
In the first stage—that of the rocker vats—two to three weeks is needed to swell the hides properly and tan them sufficiently to withstand the stronger liquors in the next series of vats. The hides, changed from four to seven times in the lay-away vats—the next step —remain from five weeks to five months. -Following the cleansing and finishing operations, time is required for the hides to dry out neither too slowly nor too quickly.
Is chrome tannage fast?
Lightweight skins have become leather within five to six hours in the chrome tannage process.
State the baggage requirements covering air travel.
40 pounds of free baggage is allowed. Kach extra pound is charged for at the rate of */> of 1% of the total one way fare. 50 pounds is the maximum luggage allowable. Maximum dimensions are 15 x 60 inches for large planes. Generally, very little hand luggage is permitted in the cabin.
What about train travel?
150 pounds of luggage up to 72 inches in dimension may be checked free of charge. No single piece weighing more than 300 pounds will be checked in the baggage car. There is no limit as to weight and dimensions of luggage taken on day coaches, or Pullman as long as they fit under, between the seats or on the overhead racks. The space under a pullman seat accommodates luggage up to 30 x 20 x 9 inches.
What are the luggage requirements for sea travel?
Most boats allow passengers to take as much luggage as they wish to, provided that the luggage fits into the cabin.
Discuss aniline dye.
Aniline dye is a coal tar product that is considered the finest of all coloring substances as it will penetrate deep into the leather without choking up .
How often should vegetable tanned leathers be re-oiled?
Vegetable tanned leathers should be treated at least twice a year with -an application of saddle soap, neatsfoot oil or some other similar preparation. Vegetable tanned leather has a tendency to become unduly hard and stiff, particularly after wetting. Under certain climatic conditions it will dry rot.
How are two-tone effects made in luggage leather?
There are two methods which may be employed. Tipping or smoking. The purpose of two-toning is simply to widen the range of distinctive color effects. In tipping a small sponge is saturated with a secondary color and lightly rubbed over the hide. Thfts, only the high spots of the embossed grain are recolored and the valleys and depressions carry the original color.
Describe how smoking is accomplished.
Smoking is accomplished in exactly the opposite manner from tipping. Here, the secondary color is painted over the entire hide completely covering the original color. Cloths saturated with wet solvents are then rubbed lightly over the grained surface removing the secondary color from the high spots only.
What is a solvent?
A solvent is a substance, usually liquid, capable or used in dissolving something, as water is the appropriate solvent of most salts, alcohol of resin and ether ef fats.
What is dope?
Dope is a compound consisting of cotton dissolved in a solvent, combined with pigments, and a castor oil which is spread on a foundation fabric in the manufacture of artificial leathers.
Is Pyroxylin dope?
It is commonly referred to as "dope" and has been employed as a finish for luggage leather. It is not so likely to crack or rub off as dyed and painted finishes, but has other serious drawbacks.
Why are seal and walrus long wearing leathers?
Both seal and walrus are long wearing leathers. The hides to begin with are extremely oily. After tanning they absorb more of the fat liquor than cowhides. The result is that they will not dry out so quickly. Once leather dries out, it quickly deteriorates and becomes useless. The oily condition of seal and walrus thus lengthens their term of service.

This may be more than we EVER wanted to know about vintage leather, but this is not widely known information, so it seemed too arcane not to share!

Categories: Materials 1942

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